United Nations (UN)
The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization. It came into force on 24 October 1945, when it was ratified by 51 countries (Member States). By 2006, its membership had grown to and is currently 192 Member States.
The Preamble of the Charter enshrines some key elements such as fundamental human rights, dignity and worth of the human person, equal rights of men and women, justice and respect for obligations [of governments], social progress and better standards of life.
The principal UN Organs are the General Assembly (all 192 Member States), the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Trusteeship Council, and the International Court of Justice.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
UNAIDS was established in 1994 through a resolution of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and made operational in January, 1996. The ECOSOC resolution emphasized “that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic affects every country of the world and that its magnitude and impact are greatest in developing countries.” UNAIDS’ objectives as outlined by ECOSOC Resolution 1994/24 are as follows:
- Provide global leadership in response to the epidemic;
- Achieve and promote global consensus on policy and programmatic approaches;
- Strengthen the capacity of the United Nations system to monitor trends and ensure that appropriate and effective policies and strategies are implemented at the country level;
- Strengthen the capacity of national Governments to develop comprehensive national strategies and implement effective HIV/AIDS activities at the country level;
- Promote broad-based political and social mobilization to prevent and respond to HIV/AIDS within countries, ensuring that national responses involve a wide range of sectors and institutions;
- Advocate greater political commitment in responding to the epidemic at the global and country levels, including the mobilization and allocation of adequate resources for HIV/AIDS-related activities.
In fulfilling these objectives, the programme will collaborate with national Governments, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, groups of people living with HIV/AIDS, and United Nations system organizations.